SS7, which stands for Signaling System No. 7, is a telecommunications protocol suite that defines how network elements in a public switched telephone network (PSTN) exchange information over a digital signaling network. This information allows the setup and tear-down of phone calls, routing of calls, and various other services.
Here's a more detailed overview of SS7:
- Role in Telecommunications: SS7 is primarily used in traditional voice telephony to establish and control call connections. It also supports various non-voice services.
- Components: The SS7 network is composed of signaling points, which can be:
- Service Switching Points (SSP): They are switches that originate, terminate, or switch calls.
- Signal Transfer Points (STP): These are packet switches that route received SS7 messages to their proper destination.
- Service Control Points (SCP): They are databases that provide information necessary for advanced call-processing features, like 800 number translation or mobile number location.
- Services Supported: Beyond basic call setup, management, and termination, SS7 also supports:
- Number Translation: Useful for services like toll-free (e.g., 800) numbers.
- Local Number Portability: Allows customers to keep their number when switching service providers.
- Short Message Service (SMS): In mobile networks.
- Prepaid Billing Systems.
- Roaming Abilities for Mobile Networks: SS7 helps determine the location of a mobile user and deliver calls/messages to them.
- Security Concerns: The SS7 protocol, being several decades old, was designed before security threats over telecommunication networks were a significant concern. This has led to vulnerabilities that can potentially be exploited by attackers to intercept calls and messages or get the location of a mobile device. Over the years, there have been calls to improve the security features of SS7 or transition to more secure protocols.
- Relation to Modern Protocols: In the context of newer telecommunication and VoIP (Voice over IP) systems, SS7 is often interfaced with newer protocols like SIP (Session Initiation Protocol). Gateways can translate between SS7 for the PSTN and SIP for IP-based networks.
- Decline and Successors: With the rise of IP-based networks and services, the significance of SS7 is gradually declining. Protocols like Diameter (often used in mobile networks) and SIP are becoming more prevalent.
In summary, SS7 has been foundational in the telecommunication industry for call and message handling in traditional phone networks, but as technology progresses, newer protocols are starting to take its place.